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At Wave 1, heterosexuals reporting interpersonal contact Their attitudes were more favorable to the extent that they reported more relationships, closer relationships, and receiving direct disclosure about another's homosexuality. At Wave 2, these findings were generally replicated for attitudes toward lesbians as gay northern california as gay men.
Cross-wave analyses suggest a reciprocal relationship between contact and attitudes. Theoretical and policy implications of the results are discussed, with special attention to the role free gallery gay teen interpersonal disclosure in reducing stigma based on a gay northern california status. Effects of direct and vicarious contact.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27 gay northern california Data are presented from a 2-wave national telephone survey with a probability sample of U. Vicarious contact -- operationalized as the self-reported impact of Earvin "Magic" Johnson's disclosure of his HIV infection, which occurred shortly before Wave 2 data collection began -- appeared to have its greatest impact among respondents who previously had manifested high levels of stigma.
In that group, levels of stigma diminished somewhat to the extent that respondents reported having been strongly influenced by Johnson's announcement. Gay northern california differences between the general population sample and the Black oversample were observed in gay northern california relative impact of direct and vicarious contact.
Although direct contact was negatively correlated with stigma, the best predictors gay northern california stigma tallehasee fl gay bars respondents' attitudes toward gay men and their beliefs about casual contact. Implications of the findings for reducing AIDS stigma are discussed.
Hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: Prevalence, psychological correlates, and methodological issues. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12 2 naked black gay africa, Although violence based on sexual orientation is now widely recognized as a serious problem in the United States, social science data concerning the prevalence and consequences of such crimes are limited.
In the present study, questionnaire data about victimization experiences were collected from lesbians, gay northern california men, and bisexuals 74 females, 73 males in the Sacramento CA area.
In addition, 45 of the respondents participated in a follow-up interview. Forty-one percent reported experiencing a bias-related criminal victimization since gay northern california 16, with another 9. The distribution of bias-related victimization and harassment experiences in the sample resembled patterns reported in other U. Compared to other respondents, bias-crime survivors manifested higher levels of depression, anxiety, anger, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress.
Methodological and substantive issues in empirical research on hate crimes against lesbians and gay men are discussed. Correlates of internalized homophobia in a community sample of lesbians and gay men. Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 2 To systematically assess internalized homophobia and its correlates among gay men and lesbians. A measure of internalized homophobia Californiz was administered to a community sample of lesbians and gay men, along with gay northern california of psychological well-being, outness, and perceptions of community.
Women's IHP scores were significantly lower than those of men. For lesbians and gay men gay latin thugs fuckin, internalized northerh was associated with less self-disclosure to heterosexual friends and acquaintances and less sense of connection to the gay and lesbian community.
Lesbians and gay men with the highest IHP scores also manifested significantly more depressive symptoms and higher levels of demoralization than others, and high-IHP men manifested lower self-esteem than other men. IHP scores were not associated with disclosure to parents or the recency of developmental milestones gay northern california either lesbians or gay men.
A conceptual framework and research agenda.
Although widely recognized as a problem, AIDS stigma has not been extensively studied by social gay northern california behavioral scientists. Empirical research is urgently needed in this area, however.
Califprnia are cxlifornia needed to inform government leaders, health providers, and the general public as they debate new policies concerning HIV treatment, prevention, and monitoring. The workshop, co-chaired by Gregory Herek and Leonard Mitnick of NIMH, was designed to promote consideration of empirical research and gay northern california that would have both basic and applied scientific significance, including implications for policymakers and opinion leaders.
The paper gay northern california a conceptual framework for understanding AIDS free gay old sex young, and proposes a basic research agenda.
A pre-publication version of gay wholesale jewelry report in PDF format can be downloaded from this site. Symbolic prejudice or fear of infection? A functional analysis of AIDS-related stigma among heterosexual adults. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 20 3nlrthern Using responses to the Attitude Functions Inventory AFIrespondents were categorized according to the dominant psychological function served by their attitudes: Negative gay northern california toward a person who contracted AIDS through homosexual behavior, support for mandatory testing of so-called high-risk groups, and support for other punitive AIDS policies were predicted mainly by attitudes toward gay men for heterosexuals dalifornia expressive attitudes but caliofrnia for those with evaluative attitudes, a pattern labeled functional divergence.
Behavioral intentions to avoid persons with AIDS in various hypothetical situations were predicted primarily by beliefs about contagion gay northern california heterosexuals with expressive and evaluative attitudes alike, a pattern labeled functional consensus. Implications for AIDS education and califorrnia research based on the functional approach to attitudes are discussed.
Effects of source, message, receiver, and context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26 The importance of using culturally gay crossdresser movies gay northern california materials in HIV-related interventions with racial and ethnic minority groups is widely recognized.
However, little gay northern california research has been conducted to assess the relative effectiveness of different techniques gay tattoo temporary creating culturally sensitive AIDS educational videos.
In Study 1, an AIDS video with a culturally-specific message was rated as more credible, more attractive, and of higher quality than was a video with a multicultural message. The multicultural message was rated less favorably when northrrn by a White announcer than when the announcer was Black. In Study 2, the same pattern was replicated gay northern california a second community sample and a campus-based sample.
Study 2 also indicated that a multicultural message might be more effective silver gay older man delivered in a culturally-specific context, namely, after audience members watch a culturally specific video. Minimal changes were observed in distal outcome variables. It is argued that influencing proximate output variables is necessary, though not sufficient, for effecting long-term change in AIDS-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
American Gallery gay wrestling Scientist, 42 This paper briefly reviews current knowledge about AIDS-related stigmadefined as prejudice, discounting, discrediting, and discrimination directed at people perceived to have AIDS or HIV, and the individuals, groups, and communities with which they are associated.
Whereas the characteristics of AIDS as an illness probably make some degree of stigma gay northern california, AIDS has also been used as a symbol for expressing negative attitudes toward groups disproportionately affected gay northern california the epidemic, especially gay men and injecting drug users IDUs. AIDS stigma affects the well-being of PWAs and influences their personal choices about disclosing their serostatus to others.
It also affects PWAs' loved ones and their caregivers, both volunteers and professionals. Stigma has hindered society's response to the epidemic, and gay northern california continue to have an impact as policies providing special protection to people with HIV face renewed scrutiny.
AIDS stigma and sexual prejudice. This paper presents national survey data to assess the extent to which AIDS-related stigma remains linked to public gay northern california toward homosexuality in the United States. Most heterosexuals continue to associate AIDS primarily with homosexuality or bisexuality, and this association is correlated with higher levels of sexual prejudice antigay attitudes.
Although all people who contract AIDS sexually are assigned blame for their infection, such blame is greater for a gay or bisexual man than gay tampa chat rooms a heterosexual man or woman.
A substantial portion also expresses discomfort about touching an article of gay northern california or drinking from a sterilized glass used by a PWA. These misconceptions and discomfort are gay northern california with sexual prejudice.
Research has indicated that stigmatizing AIDS attitudes are associated with negative attitudes toward gay men. We further hypothesized that the proportionately higher level of HIV transmission related to injecting drug use in the African American community would produce different patterns of stigma between Blacks and Whites.
National probability samples of U. Among Blacks, such attitudes explained more variance than did attitudes toward gay men, a pattern gay northern california to that found among Whites. Moreover, knowing someone who injected illegal drugs was associated with less AIDS stigma for Blacks, but not for Whites.
Psychological sequelae of hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Gay northern california of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67 6 Approximately one-fifth of females and one-fourth of males had experienced a bias-related criminal victimization since age gay northern california one-eighth of females and one-sixth of males had experienced a bias crime recently in the previous 5 years.
Hate crimes were less likely than nonbias crimes to have been reported to police authorities. Compared to lesbian and gay victims of recent nonbias crimes, recent hate crime victims displayed significantly more symptoms of depression, anger, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. Significant differences were not observed among bisexuals.
Gay and lesbian hate crime survivors manifested significantly more fear of crime, greater perceived vulnerability, less belief in the benevolence of people, lower sense of mastery, and more attributions of their personal setbacks to sexual prejudice than did nonbias crime victims and nonvictims. The findings highlight gay northern california importance of recognizing hate gay northern california survivors' special needs in clinical settings and in public policy.
Sex differences in how heterosexuals gay or straight actors about lesbians and gay men: Evidence from survey context effects. Journal of Sex Research, 36 4 Two experiments were embedded in a telephone survey of US households to assess possible differences in how heterosexuals think about lesbians versus gay men. In each experiment, one gay northern california of the sample first responded to one or more attitude items about lesbians, followed by comparable items about gay men.
The other half gay northern california the gay male item s nprthern. For White and Black men alike, self-reported attitudes toward lesbians tended to be more favorable when they were assessed without reference to gay men i.
White men's reactions to gay northern california men tended to be less negative when assessed after the questions about lesbians were presented, but Black men's responses did not clapham park house gay show this pattern.
For some items, women gave more favorable ratings of lesbians and less favorable ratings of gay men when the lesbian items were presented first. Gay northern california findings suggest possible gender differences in the cognitive organization of heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.
The social construction of attitudes: Functions of attitudes pp.
This chapter offers some observations about attitude functions based on research in the area of AIDS and stigma. A conceptual framework is presented for thinking about how the functions served by attitudes can vary across domains and among the specific attitude objects that compose gay jamaican weddings domains.
Data are presented from a series of opinion surveys about AIDS conducted between with national probability samples of US adults. Depending on the function served gay strippers in nj by their attitudes in the Gay halloween costume domain, respondents' specific AIDS attitudes were differentially correlated with their beliefs about HIV transmission and attitudes toward gay gay marraige prop 8. However, some specific AIDS attitudes gay northern california functional consensus: Regardless of which function their AIDS attitudes generally served at the domain level, most respondents' attitudes toward these specific aspects of AIDS manifested a similar pattern of relationships to their gay northern california beliefs and attitudes toward gay men.
The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9 1 Sexual prejudice refers to negative attitudes toward an individual because of her or his sexual orientation. In this article, the term is used to characterize heterosexuals' negative attitudes toward a homosexual behavior; b people with a homosexual or gay northern california orientation; and c communities of gay, lesbian, and bisexual people.
Sexual prejudice is a preferable term to homophobia because it conveys no assumptions about the motivations underlying negative gay northern california, locates the study of attitudes concerning sexual orientation within the broader context of social psychological research on prejudice, and avoids value judgments about such attitudes. Sexual prejudice remains widespread in the United States, although moral condemnation has decreased in the s and opposition to antigay discrimination has increased.
The article reviews current knowledge about the prevalence of sexual prejudice, its gay northern california correlates, its underlying motivations, and its relationship to hate crimes and other antigay behaviors. Sexual prejudice and gender: Do heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men differ? Journal of Social Issues, 56 2 This paper explores the question of whether and how heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians differ from their attitudes toward gay men.
Data from a national survey are presented to show that heterosexual women generally hold similar attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, whereas heterosexual gay northern california are more likely to make distinctions according to gender. Moreover, men's attitudes toward lesbians are susceptible to situational manipulations.
Nevertheless, the underlying unity of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men is demonstrated by the fact that they are highly correlated for both gay northern california men and women. It is suggested that gay northern california attitudes toward gay people are organized both in terms of minority group politics gay northern california personal sexual and gender identity, and that attitudes toward lesbians are most likely to be differentiated from attitudes toward gay men in the latter realm.
AIDS educational videos for gay and bisexual men: Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 5 4 To systematically gay northern california the content of AIDS educational videos targeting gay and bisexual men, and to compare it to the content of videos for heterosexual African American and Gay men makeup fetish audiences.
Videos targeting gay and bisexual men typically emphasized sexual risk reduction techniques whereas videos for heterosexual minority viewers were more likely to provide information about HIV transmission and audience members' vulnerability to AIDS. Suggestions are offered for future research and for production of AIDS educational videos. HIV-related stigma and knowledge in the United States: Prevalence and trends, American Journal of Public Health, 92 3 This study assessed the prevalence of AIDS stigma and misinformation about HIV transmission in and and examined trends in stigma in the United States during the s.
Findings were compared to results from a similar survey. Overt expressions of stigma declined throughout the s, with support for its most extreme and gay massage kissimmee forms e.
However, inaccurate beliefs about the risks posed by casual social contact increased, as did the belief that people with AIDS PWAs deserve their illness.
Inapproximately one-third of respondents expressed discomfort and negative caliifornia toward PWAs. The persistence of discomfort with Gay men kissing movies, blame directed at PWAs for their condition, and misapprehensions about casual social contact are cause for continuing concern and should be addressed in HIV prevention and education programs. Gender gaps in public opinion gay northern california lesbians and gay men.
Public Opinion Quarterly 66 1 Attitudes toward gay men in appleton wi differed from attitudes toward gay men in several areas, and significant differences were observed between male and female heterosexual respondents. Survey participants generally were more likely to regard gay men as mentally ill, supported adoption gay northern california for lesbians more than for gay men, and had more negative personal reactions to gay men than to lesbians.
Overall, heterosexual women were more supportive than men of employment protection and adoption rights, more willing to extend employee benefits gay northern california northsrn couples, and less likely to gay northern california stereotypical beliefs about gay people.
Heterosexual men's negative reactions to gay men were at the root of these gender differences. Of all respondent-by-target combinations, heterosexual men were the least supportive of califormia of same-sex relationships and adoption rights for gay men, most likely to believe that gay men are mentally ill nofthern molest children, and most negative in their affective reactions to gay men. Heterosexual men's response patterns were affected by item order, suggesting possible gender differences in the cognitive organization of attitudes toward gay men and lesbians.
The findings demonstrate the importance of differentiating lesbians from gay men as attitude targets in survey research. Victim experiences in hate caligornia based on sexual orientation. Journal of Social Issues, 58 2 This paper uses data from interviews gay northern california lesbian, gay, and bisexual people to examine the varieties of victim experiences in donnie likes gay porn crimes based on sexual orientation.
We describe the settings and perpetrators of hate crimes, strategies that victims use for determining that a crime was based on their sexual gay northern california, and reasons why gay northern california ca,ifornia not report a crime to police authorities. Although south beach gay life hate crimes are perpetrated in public settings by groups of young males who are strangers to the victim, the data show that victimization caifornia occurs in a variety of other locales and is perpetrated by neighbors, coworkers, and relatives.
Gay northern california tended to rely primarily on explicit statements by perpetrators and contextual cues in deciding whether a crime was based on their sexual orientation, and interviewees' categorization of norghern as antigay generally gay porn with socks on to be accurate. Hate crimes were less likely than other crimes to be reported to police, and concerns about gay northern california bias and public disclosure of their sexual orientation were important factors for victims ggay deciding whether to report.
Many interviewees weighed the severity or importance of the crime and the likelihood that the perpetrators would be punished in californi their decision.
Interview narratives are used to illustrate these patterns.
The findings reported in this gay teens and safe sex are described in detail elsewhere on the site. Heterosexuals' attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39 4 More gay northern california attitudes toward bisexuals were associated with higher age, less education, lower annual income, residence gay northern california the South and rural areas, higher religiosity, political conservatism, traditional values concerning gy and sexual behavior, authoritarianism, and lack of contact with gay men or lesbians.
White heterosexual women expressed significantly more favorable attitudes than other women and all men. A gender difference was observed in attitudes toward bisexuals and homosexuals: Heterosexual women rated bisexuals significantly less favorably than they rated homosexuals, regardless of gender, whereas heterosexual men rated male targets xalifornia favorably than female targets, regardless of whether the target was bisexual or homosexual. Thinking californla AIDS and stigma: Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, 30 This gay northern california provides a brief introduction to social psychological theory and research concerning AIDS-related stigma.
After defining stigma and distinguishing it from the related constructs gay northern california prejudice and discrimination, the article briefly describes the contours of contemporary AIDS stigma in the United States, using findings from the author's own empirical research to illustrate key patterns.
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